Reduce chlorine

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As good as existing water filtration/purification technologies are, each has limitations. They're short-lived, or expensive, or difficult to maintain, or easily fouled by microorganisms, or just plain unable to perform up to anticipated stricter regulations.

KDF* process media, however, improve these technologies by protecting, and in some cases, replacing existing filtration/ purification technologies. KDF media provide extended life, lower total cost, decreased maintenance, control of microorganisms and improved performance. This explains how.

Patented** KDF process media are high-purity copper-zinc formulations. They reduce contaminants in water using oxidation/reduction (redox)- the electro-chemical potential of purified dissimilar metals. While that sounds like a mysterious process, it really isn't.

*Trademark of KDF Fluid Treatment, Inc.

** U.S. patents 4,642,192; 5,122,274; 5,135,654; 5,198,118; 5,275,737; 5,314,623; 5,415,770; 5,433,856. Foreign counterparts granted. Other U.S. and foreign patents pending.

Controls chlorine and heavy metals

In plain English, the redox reaction means KDF media simply exchange electrons with contaminants. The give and take of electrons changes many contaminants into harmless components, such as chlorine to chloride. Other contaminants, such as lead and other heavy metals, bond to the KDF media.

The end result is totally eliminating or greatly reducing a wide variety of contaminants.

Controls bacteria, algae, and fungi

KDF process media control microorganisms two ways. The first way is a by-product of redox; the exchange of electrons explained above actually sets up an electrolytic field that most microorganisms can't survive. Second the process of forming hydroxyl radicals and peroxides from some of the water molecules interferes with the microorganisms' ability to function.


Where Oxidation Reduction Media Work

Here are five ways to use them.
By Thomas M. Lotts

0xidation /reduction is one of the most common reactions occuring in nature, but how it's used for water treatment remains a mystery to many water treatment dealers.

Redox media remove dissolved gases such as chlorine, hydrogen sulfide and methane from water. They can also remove virtually any soluble heavy metal, help prevent mineral hardness scale accumulation and reduce levels of microorganisms.

What makes these media unique, however, is that all the energy necessary to remove contaminants from water is inherent in the electrochemical and catalytic potential of the redox alloy. Because they're also versatile, they're a good choice for a wide variety of water treatment applications, including:

Dechlorinating. High purity copper-zinc redox media consistently remove 99 percent of free chlorine from drinking water by electrochemically reducing dissolvedchlorine gas to water-soluble chloride ions. Because municipalities continue to chlorinate (and overchlorinate) water, the market for dechlorination is growing.

Removing dissolved heavy metals. Redox media removes up to 98 percent of water-soluble cations of lead, mercury, copper, nickel, chromium, cadmium, antimony, cobalt and most other dissolved heavy metals upon direct contact. The removal mechanism is electro-chemical and partially catalytic.

Soluble lead cations are reduced to insoluble lead atoms and electroplated onto the surface and interstices of the granular media. Metallic contaminants are bonded to the redox alloy until the filter materials are recycled in a copper smelter.

Controlling microorganisms. The oxidation/ reduction potential (ORP) shift from +200mV for untreated water to - 500mV for water filtered through redox media controls microorganism growth. In general, different types of bacteria can only grow within a particular range of redox potential.

Water treated with one redox medium comprised of a copper zinc alloy reduces bacteria and other microorganisms by disrupting electron transport, causing a cascade of cellular damage. Redox media also kill bacteria by direct electrochemical contact and by the flash formation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide, both of which interfere with a microorganism's ability to function.

Preventing hardness scale accumulation. Redox alloy media prevent the formation and accumulation of mineral hardness scale, primarily calcium carbonate.

Electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography demonstrate that hardness scale from untreated water is formed by relatively large, irregularly shaped acicular crystals of calcium and magnesium mineral salts. These salts form a hard, insoluble and interlocking network of vitreous limestone scale which plugs plumbing, interfering with heat transfer and damaging equipment.

Water filtered through redox alloy media alters the morphology of insoluble calcium and magnesium carbonate and sulfate crystals to relatively small, evenly shaped, rounded grains and rods. These form an unconsolidated powdery compound that won't adhere to metallic surfaces and is removed by 5-micron physical filtration.

Reprinted with permission from Water Technology The test data is from research capabilities of redox filter media and activated carbon.



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